Syllabus

Summer semester

 

BIOCHEMISTRY LECTURES: 
1 Introduction to Biochemistry. Saccharide metabolism: the glycolytic pathway. 
Aerobic decarboxylation of pyruvate 
2 Gluconeogenesis. Cori-Alanine cycle. Glycogen biosynthesis and breakdown. 
3 Fructose and galactose metabolism. Pentose phosphate pathway. 
Glucuronate pathway. 
4 Citric acid cycle, energetic yield. Glyoxylate cycle. 
5 Digestion and absorption of lipids. Biosynthesis and degradation of FFA. 
6 Biosynthesis of cholesterol and its transformation to bile acids, steroid hormones, calciols. 
7 Transport forms of cholesterol lipoproteins, mixed micelle. 
8 Komplex lipids - phospholipids and glycolipids. Synthesis of eicosanoids. 
9 Metabolism of ketone bodies. 
Metabolism of adipose tissue. 
10 Enzymes. Characteristic features of biocatalysis, enzyme structure and function, nomenclature and classification of enzymes. Metaloenzymes. Isoenzymes. Macroenzymes 
11 Enzyme cofactors, review of structures and functions. Enzyme kinetics. Allosteric enzymes. Inhibition of enzymes. 
12 Metabolism of proteins. Protein and amino acid metabolism. 
The common reactions in amino acid degradation. 
13 Catabolism of proteins. Deamination of amino acids. Non-toxic transportation forms of ammonia. Glutamine cycle. Urea synthetic cycle. 
14 Metabolic breakdown of individual amino acids, conversion to specialized products, Creatine, creatinine. Phosphocreatine shuttle. 


BIOCHEMISTRY PRACTICALS: 
1 Introduction to practicals in Biochemistry, rules, work safety, conditions for credit. 
2 MINERALS I. 
Determination of magnesium ions in the blood serum. 
Determination of inorganic phosphate in the blood serum. 
3 MINERALS II. 
Determination of the concentration of iron in the blood serum. 
Determination of calcium ions in the blood serum. 
4 PROTEINS I. 
The isolation of the milk proteins and the proof of the particular components of milk. 
5 PROTEINS II. 
The salting out and dialysis of blood serum proteins. 
6 Biological materials, results interpretation. 
Written test I. 
7 NUCLEOPROTEINS 
The isolation of nucleoproteins from yeast and detection of their components. 
8 AMINO ACIDS 
Thin layer chromatography (TLC) the separation of amino acids. 
9 ENZYMES 
The substrate specifity of the enzymes. 
Determination of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in the blood serum. 
10 VITAMINS 
The separation of the vitamin mixture by gel permeation chromatography on SephadexG-25. 
A rough estimate of ascorbic acid in urine by iodometric titration. 
11 Control sera for GLP (Good Laboratory Practice). 
Written test II. 
12 GLP Determination of proteins in the blood serum and Lyonorm using Biuret reagent. 
13 Substitutionary lesson. Consultations, checking protocols. Credit test. 
14 Credit test repetition. Credit. 

 

Winter semester

BIOCHEMISTRY LECTURES: 
1. METABOLISM OF PROTEINS I. 
Ammonia. Glutamine cycle. Urea synthetic cycle. -glutamyl cycle.
2. METABOLISM OF PROTEINS II. 
Metabolic breakdown of individual amino acids, conversion to specialized products, 
Phosphocreatine shuttle 
3. BIOCHEMICAL IMPORTANT PEPTIDES 
Peptide hormones, basic mechanism of their action 
4. PLASMA PROTEINS 
Metabolism of blood elements, immunoglobulins 
5. METABOLISM OF TETRAPYRROLS 
Metabolism of porphyrins. Biosynthesis, breakdown. Bilirubin. 
6. METABOLISM OF GLYCOPROTEINS 
Glycoproteins, proteoglycans, PAPS. Cartilage aging 
7. METABOLISM OF PURINE AND PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES 
Biosynthesis, breakdown, uric acid. 
8. RESPIRATORY CHAIN. 
9. BIOCHEMISTRY OF SELECTED ORGANS AND TISSUES 
Kidney, brain, lungs. Acid base ballance, buffers 
10. ANTIOXIDANTS, XENOBIOTICS 
Antioxidants, antioxidant capacity, detoxification of xenobiotics, conjugation reactions 
11. SPECIAL VETERINARY BIOCHEMISTRY I. Metabolism of ruminants 
12. SPECIAL VETERINARY BIOCHEMISTRY II. Metabolisms of reptiles 
13. SPECIAL VETERINARY BIOCHEMISTRY III. Metabolisms and fish 


BIOCHEMISTRY PRACTICALS: 
1. Introduction to practicals in Biochemistry, rules, work safety, conditions for credit. 
2. SACCHARIDES 
Enzymatic determination of glucose in blood serum (page 62). 
Enzymatic determination of glucose in model samples (page 68). 
3. LIPIDS 
Quantitative determination of total cholesterol in blood serum (77). 
Qualitative determination of MDA (malondialdehyde). 
4. PROTEINS I. 
Determination of the total nitrogen of proteins in blood serum using the Kjeldahl´s 
method (80). 
5. PROTEINS II. 
Quantitative determination of total proteins in blood serum using biuret reaction (83). 
Determination of the concentration of serum albumin. 
6. ENZYMES I. 
Diagnostic important enzymes (ALT, LD). 
Written test I. 
7. ENZYMES II. 
Determination of Asparate aminotransferase (AST/ASAT) activity in blood serum (91). 
Determination of Gamma-Glutamyl transferase (GMT/GGT) activity in blood serum (96). 
8. TETRAPYRROLS (102) 
Prove chemically the presence of blood by creating the Teichman´s crystals. 
Determine the concentration of total bilirubin in blood serum. 
9. NON-PROTEIN NITROGENOUS SUBSTANCES I. 
Determine the concentration of uric acid in your own urine (115). 
Murexide test (117). 
10. NON-PROTEIN NITROGENOUS SUBSTANCES II. 
Determine the concentration of urea in blood serum (122). 
Determine the concentration of urea in Lyonorm 
11. INSTRUMENTAL ANALYSIS IN BIOCHEMISTRY 
VetTest (biochemical analyzator) 
Written test II. 
12. URINE 
The analyses of the urine (125). Pathological substances. PocketChem for urine analysis. 
Urine sediment. 
13. SUBSTITUTIONARY LESSON. Consultations, checking protocols. Credit test.